High penetration solar deployment
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Another limitation is the overall ramp range, or generator turn-down ratio. These include the rate at which generators can change output, particularly in the evening when generators must increase output rapidly in a high PV scenario. The ability of the aggregated set of generators to rapidly change output at a high rate and over a large range can be described as a grid's overall flexibility. These are illustrated in Figure 2 , which shows the results of the same simulation, except on a spring day. Beyond this point PV no longer adds significant amounts of firm capacity to the system. Previous analysis has demonstrated the ability of a wind-and solar-based system to meet a large fraction of system demand when using electricity storage Denholm and Hand
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While the penetration of solar energy is currently far too small to see significant impacts, curtailment of wind energy is an increasing concern in the United States Wiser and Bolinger These are illustrated in Figure 2 , which shows the results of the same simulation, except on a spring day. A comprehensive analysis of each flexibility option is needed to evaluate the cost-optimal approach of enhancing the use of variable generation. Generator mix — Hydro and gas-fired generators are generally more flexible than coal or nuclear. Market structure — Some grids allow more rapid exchange of energy and can more efficiently balance supply from variable generators and demand. We just show the load minus the solar output to isolate the impact.
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The ability to "de-commit" or turn off power plants may also be limited by the need to provide operating reserves from partially loaded power plants. In Figure 2 , PV sometimes displaces wind and geothermal generation, which provides no real benefit in terms of avoided fuel use or emissions. Several factors limit the ability of conventional generators to reduce output to accommodate renewable generation. While the penetration of solar energy is currently far too small to see significant impacts, curtailment of wind energy is an increasing concern in the United States Wiser and Bolinger This challenge is illustrated in Figure 3 , a ramp duration curve for California covering an entire simulated year. During this day, the lower demand results in PV displacing lower cost baseload energy. This figure is from a previous analysis that used a production cost model simulating the western United States Denholm et al.
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